Europe lockdown: New coronavirus curbs country by country

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.css-5aybgr-Placeholder{display:block;padding-bottom:56.25%;height:0;background-color:#EEEEEE;}.css-evoj7m-Image{display:block;width:100%;height:auto;}A young girl wearing a mask.css-1ecljvk-StyledFigureCopyright{position:absolute;bottom:0;right:0;background:#3F3F42;color:#EEEEEE;padding:0.25rem 0.5rem;text-transform:uppercase;}image copyrightGetty Images

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image captionEurope fears a second wave of coronavirus

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.css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}Restrictions to deal with new coronavirus outbreaks have been imposed in parts of Europe since lockdowns were eased.

So what are these measures and how do they compare in different countries?

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Spain: Travel warnings after infection spike

On 4 May, Spain set out its plan to start easing one of the strictest lockdowns in Europe, which saw children under 14 confined to their homes for six weeks.

While coronavirus appears to be under control in much of the country, Catalonia – including Barcelona – and neighbouring Aragón in the north-east saw a huge spike in infections in July.

Breakfast on the terrace of a bar during the first day of mandatory use of masks everywhere in Madrid regionimage copyrightReuters
image captionThe Madrid region introduced the mandatory use of masks outside

Stay-at-home orders have been issued to four million residents in Catalonia, and stricter measures could yet be introduced.

Madrid has seen a spike in cases, leading to compulsory face masks in public – regardless of whether social distancing is possible.

In a huge blow to tourism, some European countries issued travel warnings for the affected regions of Spain – and the UK imposed a 14-day quarantine for anyone arriving from Spain.

Germany: Compulsory airport testing

Germany began easing its lockdown in April, allowing small shops to open.

In May, shops of all sizes and schools started to reopen. Bundesliga football matches also resumed behind closed doors.

Travellers line up to be tested for Covid-19 at the airport in Dortmund, Germanyimage copyrightEPA
image captionTesting at German airports is compulsory for all travellers arriving from high-risk countries
However, a surge in cases linked to a meat-processing plant near the western town of Gütersloh triggered .css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link{color:#3F3F42;}.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited{font-weight:bolder;border-bottom:1px solid #BABABA;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link:hover,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited:hover,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link:focus,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited:focus{border-bottom-color:currentcolor;border-bottom-width:2px;color:#B80000;}@supports (text-underline-offset:0.25em){.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited{border-bottom:none;-webkit-text-decoration:underline #BABABA;text-decoration:underline #BABABA;-webkit-text-decoration-thickness:1px;text-decoration-thickness:1px;-webkit-text-decoration-skip-ink:none;text-decoration-skip-ink:none;text-underline-offset:0.25em;}.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link:hover,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited:hover,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:link:focus,.css-yidnqd-InlineLink:visited:focus{-webkit-text-decoration-color:currentcolor;text-decoration-color:currentcolor;-webkit-text-decoration-thickness:2px;text-decoration-thickness:2px;color:#B80000;}}new local lockdowns on 23 June.

On 27 July, the government announced that testing at airports would be compulsory for all travellers arriving from high-risk countries.

The federal and regional governments have also agreed new rules to contain local outbreaks in future, such as travel bans in and out of coronavirus hotspots.

France: Large gatherings banned in some regions

People adjust their masks in Argeles- sur-Mer, southern Franceimage copyrightEPA
image captionMasks are compulsory outside in some areas of France

France’s lockdown was imposed on 17 March, but restrictions began to ease on 11 May.

However, following fresh outbreaks in July, the French government made face masks compulsory in all enclosed public spaces.

The government said it would impose local lockdowns rather than another national one, if there was a second wave of infections.

Cases are rising in the north-west, in Mayenne in particular, and in eastern regions where the wearing of masks is obligatory outdoors and where gatherings of more than 10 people have been banned.

Some beach resorts – now crowded because of the heatwave – have made mask-wearing outdoors compulsory, not just indoors.

Italy: Police close popular tourist spots

Director of the Uffizi Gallery Eike Dieter Schmidt poses with a face mask in front The Birth of Venus painting by Sandro Botticelliimage copyrightReuters
image captionStrict social distancing and the compulsory wearing of face masks are in effect in Italy’s museums and galleries

Italy’s strict lockdown started on 7 March and was gradually lifted two months later.

Bars, restaurants, hairdressers, museums and tourist sites all reopened with strict social distancing and the compulsory wearing of face masks.

On 3 June, Italy reopened its borders and ended regional travel restrictions.

However, in July infections rose again in Rome and the surrounding Lazio region.

Police closed popular squares in Rome to limit crowds at weekends. Clubs which did not follow social distancing rules were also closed.

Belgium: Further easing delayed

Customers are poured wine by a waiter wearing a mask in Belgiumimage copyrightReuters
image captionA cautious reopening began in Belgium in early May

In Belgium, shops, schools, markets, museums, zoos, hairdressers and beauty salons were gradually allowed to open from early May.

Sports events, religious services and village fetes have been allowed since 1 July as well, with a maximum 200 participants or spectators indoors and 400 outside.

However, in recent weeks Belgium has seen a rise in new infections.

The city of Antwerp, which saw a spike in infections, introduced a curfew at the end of July. In restaurants, a maximum of four people are allowed to sit at a table, although larger households are allowed to sit together.

The government decided not to go ahead with the next phase of reopening which was planned for 1 August.

Nightclubs remain closed and no major events, such as festivals, are allowed.

Netherlands: Travel warnings issued

The Netherlands imposed a far less strict lockdown than next-door Belgium.

Women wait to sit down outside cafes in Amsterdamimage copyrightReuters
image captionDutch bars, cafes and restaurants are expected to observe social distancing

Shops, bars, cafes, restaurants, hairdressers and museums are all open and since 1 July there has been no upper limit for people inside or outside, provided they stick to 1.5m social distancing.

A drop in cases meant that further measures to ease the lockdown were brought forward: brothels were allowed to open on 1 July, from planned reopening in September.

However, in July the government issued a warning against all but essential travel to Antwerp, Barcelona, the cities of Lisbon and Porto in Portugal and Croatia. Sweden and the UK also remain out of bounds except for essential travel.

Portugal: Nightclubs remain closed

Portugal has had fewer coronavirus cases and deaths than some other south European nations.

The government reopened different sectors of the economy every 15 days: restaurants, coffee shops, museums and beaches opened in May and June.

Sunny weather at Carcavelos beach near Lisbonimage copyrightReuters
image captionThe UK has advised against all non-essential travel to Portugal

The final phase of reopening started on 1 July.

Hotels have mainly reopened, but nightclubs remain closed.

The UK has advised against all non-essential travel to Portugal, since Lisbon saw a spike in infections. The Portuguese government complained, as British tourists usually flock to both Portugal and Spain in summer.

Greece: Airport testing available for passengers

Greece recorded its first Covid-19 case on 26 February and the government swiftly imposed a lockdown.

Relaxation measures started in late April, with a particular focus on opening up the country for the summer.

However, the number of cases started rising again in July.

People wearing protective face masks enter the ancient amphitheatre of Epidaurusimage copyrightCOSTAS BALTAS
image captionThe number of cases in Greece started rising again in July

Since 29 July, face masks have been obligatory in supermarkets, shops, cafes, banks, government offices and hairdressers.

From 5 August, Athens International Airport will offer testing to any passenger on request, at a cost of €70 (£63).

Republic of Ireland: Non-essential foreign travel discouraged

Ireland has had a stricter lockdown than the UK, with residents only allowed to exercise within 2km (1.2 miles) of their homes. A phased easing of restrictions started on 18 May.

The government still advises against non-essential travel overseas. This includes Britain, but does not apply to Northern Ireland. It also includes all travel by cruise ship.

There is a limited list of countries which are exempt from this advice, including popular tourist destinations such as Italy, Greece and Cyprus. People coming back from these locations are not required to restrict their movements on arrival.

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